Cyber defense of Rotating Machinery Using an Integrated 'Fuse' Bearing

Evyatar Cohen, Jacob Bortman, and Renata Klein
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Full Paper
phmc_15_028.pdf1.32 MBJuly 29, 2015 - 5:58am

A new concept is proposed for protection against cyber-attacks aiming to create excessive loads which will eventually result in irreversible damage to critical rotating machines. This novel approach is used as an additional defense layer of cyber protection to prevent hostile entities from breaking into the control system of the critical machines.

The proposed approach integrates a ‘fuse’ mechanism into the critical rotating machine. It is expected that under attack or abuse, the fuse mechanism (the ‘weakest’ component in a machine) will be damaged first, ahead of the other critical components of the machine. In this case, the mechanism’s fast degradation and early failure will lead to early detection of attack and finally to prevention of a catastrophic damage to a critical machine. A relatively small bearing is used as the weak link, or the fuse, in the critical system. This mechanism allows rapid life degradation under harmful regimes. The detection process is based on techniques of machine health monitoring via vibrations signatures. Advanced signal processing and feature extraction methodologies are applied for initial failure detection and fuse degradation tracking.

An analytical model simulating the wear of a fuse bearing under a wide range of attack scenarios was developed. Statistical models for bearing life estimation were used to build this model. Life prediction and degradation simulations of the fuse bearing and the machine critical bearings at each attack scenario were performed in order to define the requirements for an effective fuse mechanism. Some model parameters were adjusted to the experimental test facility that was built in the lab, to facilitate the conduction of experiments designed to validate the model. In addition, a set of fatigue life experiments were conducted with the purpose of proving the early damage detection ability of the fuse bearing using vibration analysis.

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Model-based methods for fault detection, diagnostics, and prognosis
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